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What is UPSC ?

Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) is India’s central agency, which conducts various exams such as, Civil Services Exam, IFoS, NDA, CDS, SCRA etc. Civil services examination is popularly known as IAS exam and includes almost 24 services like IFS, IPS, IRS, IRPS and so on.

IAS is an acronym for Indian Administrative Service. It is called to be the one of the most prestigious services among the 24 services like IPS, IFS etc.

An officer selected into the Indian Administrative Service gets exposure in very diverse roles like the Collector, Commissioner, Head of Public Sector Units, Chief Secretary, Cabinet Secretary, etc.

Indian Forest Service (IFoS) is one of the Civil Services of India, the other two being the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and the Indian Police Service (IPS). Created in 1966, the IFoS officers are recruited and trained by the Central government but their services are placed under state cadres, and they have to serve both under the state and Central governments.

The chief purpose of IFoS is the implementation of the National Forest Policy which aims to preserve the environment by maintaining strict vigil to sustain ecological balance that are critical for survival of all forms of life.

IFoS officers while in field postings in their state cadres work for conservation, protection and development of forests and wildlife along with an aim to enhance livelihood opportunities of forest dependent communities of rural and tribal areas.

The Union Ministry of Environment and Forests is the cadre controlling authority of Indian Forest Service.

IFoS officers are recruited through the IFoS examination conducted annually by the Union Public Service Commission. The examination is open to graduates in any science or engineering discipline and has a three-stage selection process spanning nearly seven months.

In 2015, 4.6 lakh aspirants appeared for the combined preliminary exam, out of which 85 were finally selected for IFoS; this selection percentage of less than 0.02 per cent makes it one of the toughest open competitive exams conducted in India. The number of aspirants is also on the increase every year.

Exam and selection process

Prelims exam:

All the applicants will have to take an objective type exam called the Preliminary Examination that is common to other Civil Services Examination. It consists of two papers, where they are tested on areas such as economics, politics, history, geography, environment, awareness of current affairs, reading comprehension, logical reasoning, basic numeracy skills, inter-personal skills and decision making. Generally the qualifying cut-off marks of Preliminary Exam required to sit for IFoS main examination is greater than that required to sit for Civil Services Main Examination. The marks of Preliminary Exam is not counted in making final overall merit.

Mains exam:

Around 1,400 candidates are selected for the Main Examination which consists of six descriptive papers. Each candidate has to select two optional subjects (two papers each) from among the subjects allowed by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) and has to take one General Studies paper and an English language paper.

Final interview:

Around 230 candidates securing highest marks in the Main Examination are called for the interview conducted by UPSC board members.

Interview or personality assessment is followed by a medical check-up and a physical test which requires all male candidates to complete a 25 km walk/run in less than 4 hours. For ladies the distance is reduced to 14 km. The test is usually conducted at the National Zoological Park in Delhi. After selection for the IFS, candidates are allocated state cadres. There is one cadre for each Indian state, with the exception of three joint cadres: Assam-Meghalaya, Manipur-Tripura, and Arunachal Pradesh-Goa-Mizoram-Union Territories (AGMUT).

Two-thirds of the strength of every cadre (for a state) is filled directly by IFoS officers and the remaining are promoted from the respective states cadre officers.

IAS/IPS is undoubtedly the king of all professions in India. Not only the experience and challenges but also the scope of making positive changes in the life of millions in India makes IAS/IPS a unique career choice.

1. Toughness of the exam

2. Power & Prestige of Position

3. Pay Scale – After 7th Pay Commission

4. Parents Dream – about 80% of the Parents dream their son/daughter to be IAS/IPS officers

Even though the exam to be undertaken is popularly known as IAS exam, it is officially called UPSC Civil Services Exam. Getting into IAS/IPS is not easy considering the competition involved, but not impossible for a candidate with right attitude and approach.

To clear IAS/IPS Exam you should have a long-term strategy. What matters is not the duration of the preparation, but the quality of the same. To clear this exam, basically two entities as essential:
Right guidance – for prelims and mains.
Right study materials and books.

General Category 6 attempts upto age of 32 years
OBC/SEBC Category 9 attempts upto age of 35 years
SC/ST Category Unlimited attempts upto age of 37 years

The UPSC Civil Services Examination comprises of 3 successive stages:

A. Preliminary Exam – Objective Type 400 marks
1) GS 200 marks
2) CSAT (Qualifying Nature-33%) 200 marks
B. Mains Exam – Descriptive type:
1. Paper A: Indian Language – Qualifying Nature (~25%) 300 Marks
2. Paper B: English Language – Qualifying Nature (~25%) 300 Marks
3. Paper 1: Essay 250 Marks
4. Paper 2: General Studies 1
(Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Indian Society)
250 Marks
5. Paper 3: General Studies 2
(Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations)
250 Marks
6. Paper 4: General Studies 3
(Technology, Economics, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and DM)
250 Marks
7. Paper 5: General Studies 4
(Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude)
250 Marks
8. Paper 6: Optional Paper-I 250 Marks
9. Paper 7: Optional Paper-II 250 Marks
Sub Total (Written test) 1750 Marks
C. Personality Test (Interview) 275 Marks
GRAND TOTAL 2025 Marks
Note: Candidates may choose any one of the optional subjects from amongst the list of Subjects given by the UPSC.
1 Agriculture 14 Management
2 Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science 15 Mathematics
3 Anthropology 16 Mechanical Engineering
4 Botany 17 Medical Science
5 Chemistry 18 Philosophy
6 Civil Engineering 19 Physics
7 Commerce and Accountancy 20 Political Science and International Relations
8 Economics 21 Psychology
9 Electrical Engineering 22 Public Administration
10 Geography 23 Sociology
11 Geology 24 Statistics
12 History 25 Zoology
13 Law 26 Literature of any one of the following languages: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santhali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu and, English.

Note :

i. The question papers for the examination will be of descriptive type.

ii. Each paper will be of 3 hours duration.

iii. Paper-A and Paper-B, in any of the languages included in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India or in English.

iv. Candidates choosing the option to answer Papers in any one of the languages mentioned above may, if they so desire, can give English version within brackets of only the description of the technical terms, if any, in addition to the version in the language opted by them.

v. Candidates should, however, note that if they misuse the above rule, a deduction will be made on this account from the total marks otherwise accruing to them and in extreme cases; their script(s) will not be valued for being in an unauthorized medium.

vi. The question papers (other than the literature of language papers) will be set in Hindi and English only.

vii. Candidates who have opted for an Indian Language as language medium for the Main Examination have an option of being interviewed either in English or in the same language which they have opted for the Main Examination.

Group A Services Group B Services
1 Indian Administrative Service 20 Armed Forces Headquarters Civil Service (Section Officer's Grade)
2 Indian Foreign Service 21 Delhi, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli Civil Service
3 Indian Police Service 22 Delhi, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli Police Service
4 Indian P & T Accounts & Finance Service 23 Pondicherry Civil Service
5 Indian Audit and Accounts Service 24 Pondicherry Police Service
6 Indian Revenue Service (Customs and Central Excise)
7 Indian Defence Accounts Service
8 Indian Revenue Service (I.T.)
9 Indian Ordnance Factories Service (Assistant Works Manager, Administration)
10 Indian Postal Service
11 Indian Civil Accounts Service
12 Indian Railway Traffic Service
13 Indian Railway Accounts Service
14 Indian Railway Personnel Service
15 Indian Railway Protection Force (Assistant Security Commissioner)
16 Indian Defence Estates Service
17 Indian Information Service (Junior Grade)
18 Indian Trade Service, Group 'A' (Gr. III)
19. Indian Corporate Law Service

1. History:
- NCERT of 6th to 10th Std. – Selected Chapter for basics
- Ancient History: New NCERT - Themes in Indian History Part 1 (12th Std.) & Magnitude Notes
- Medieval History: New NCERT - Themes in Indian History Part 2 (12th Std.) & Magnitude Notes
- Modern History: New NCERT - Themes in Indian History Part 3 (12th Std.), Spectrum by Rajiv Ahir & Magnitude Notes
- World History: Old NCERT 9th & 10th - Story of Civilization by Arjun Dev & New NCERT 11th Std. - Themes of World & Magnitude Notes
- Culture: NIOS/CCRT + Magnitude Notes

2. Geography:
- NCERT of 6th to 10th Std. – Selected Chapter for basics
- NCERT 11th & 12th Std.
- Certificate Physical & Human Geography by G.C. Leong
- Orient Black Swan Atlas OR Oxford Student Atlas
- Magnitude Handouts & Notes

3. Polity& Governance:
- Indian Polity by M. Laxmikanth – Mc Graw Hill
- NCERT 11th& 12th Std.
- Magnitude Handouts & Notes

4. Economics:
- NCERT 11th Std. – Indian Economic Development
- NCERT 12th Std. – Macroeconomics
- Indian Economy by Ramesh Singh OR Sanjiv Verma
- Economic Survey & Budget by GOI
- The Hindu – Business Review
- Magnitude Handouts & Notes

5. Environment & Ecology:
- NCERT 12th – Biology (Selected Chapters)
- Magnitude Notes

6. Science:
- NCERT 9th & 10th Std.
- The Hindu – Science & Technology edition of Monday
- Science Reporter Magazine
- Magnitude Notes

7. Internal Security & International Relations:
- Magnitude Notes

8. Indian Society:
- NCERT 11th Std. – Understanding Society
- NCERT 12th Std. – Indian Society
- Indian Society by S.C. Dube – National Book Trust

9. Disaster Management:
- Magnitude Notes

10. Ethics & Integrity:
- Lexicon
- Subbarao
- Magnitude Notes

11. Current Affairs:
- MAGNITUDE Current Affairs Magazine
- The Hindu or Indian Express
- Press Information Bureau – Website –
- Whats App Updates & DNA by Magnitude

12. Magazine:
- Yojana
- Kurukshetra
- India Year Book
- MAGNITUDE Current Affairs Magazine

Paper I – (200 marks)   Duration: Two hours

- Current events of national and international importance.
- History of India and Indian National Movement.
- Indian and World Geography - Physical, Social, Economic geography of India and the World.
- Indian Polity and Governance-Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.
- Economic and Social Development – Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc
- General issues on Environmental ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change - that do not require subject specialization
- General Science

Paper II – (200 marks)   Duration: Two hours

- Comprehension
- Interpersonal skills including communication skills;
- Logical reasoning and analytical ability
- Decision making and problem solving
- General mental ability
- Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude, etc.) (Class X level), Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency etc. - Class X level)
- English Language Comprehension skills (Class X level).
- Questions relating to English Language Comprehension skills of Class X level (last item in the Syllabus of Paper-II) will be tested through passages from English language only without providing Hindi translation thereof in the question paper.

Imp Note:
• Both the question papers will be of the objective type.
• The question papers will be set both in English or Hindi.
• Paper – II of the Civil Services (Prelims) Exam will be a qualifying paper with minimum qualifying marks fixed at 33%.
• It is mandatory for the candidate to appear in both the Papers of Civil Services (Prelim) Examination for the purpose of evaluation.
• Else, candidate will be disqualified in case he/she does not appear in both the papers of Civil Services (Prelim) Examination.

The Main Examination is intended to assess the overall intellectual traits and depth of understanding of candidates rather than merely the range of their information and memory.

Paper A – Indian language – 300 Marks – Qualifying Nature:   Duration: 3 Hours

1) Comprehension of given passages.
2) Precis Writing
3) Usage and Vocabulary.
4) Short Essay
5) Translation from English to the Indian language and vice-versa.

Paper B – English – 300 marks – Qualifying Nature:   Duration: 3 Hours

The aim of the paper is to test the candidates' ability to read and understand serious discursive prose, and to express his ideas clearly and correctly, in English and Indian Language concerned.
The pattern of questions would be broadly as follows:-
1) Comprehension of given passages
2) Precise Writing
3) Usage and Vocabulary
4) Short Essay.

Paper – I: Essay – 250 Marks:   Duration: 3 Hours

To be written in the medium or language of the candidate's choice. Candidates may be required to write an essay on a multiple topics. The choice of subjects will be given. They will be expected to keep closely to the subject of the essay to arrange their ideas in orderly fashion, and to write concisely. Credit will be given for effective and exact expression.

Paper – II: GS 1 – 250 Marks:   Duration: 3 Hours

(Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society)
- Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
- Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues
- The Freedom Struggle - its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.
- Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.
- History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.
- Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
- Role of women and women's organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
- Effects of globalization on Indian society
- Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.
- Salient features of world's physical geography.
- Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)
- Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

Paper – III: GS 2 – 250 Marks:   Duration: 3 Hours

(Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations)
- Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
- Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
- Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.
- Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries
- Parliament and State Legislatures - structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.
- Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.
- Salient features of the Representation of People's Act.
- Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
- Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies
- Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
- Development processes and the development industry the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders
- Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and
- Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
- Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
- Issues relating to poverty and hunger
- Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.
- Role of civil services in a democracy.
- India and its neighborhood- relations.
- Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India's interests
- Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India's interests, Indian diaspora.
- Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate.

PAPER – IV: GS 3 – 250 Marks:   Duration: 3 Hours

(Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management)
- Development, Bio diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management.
- Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.
- Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
- Government Budgeting.
- Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers
- Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions;
- Economics of animal-rearing.
- Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.
- Land reforms in India.
- Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
- Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
- Investment models.
- Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology;
- Indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
- Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.
- Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment
- Disaster and disaster management.
- Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
- Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
- Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention
- Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism
- Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate

Paper – V: GS 4 – 250 Marks:   Duration: 3 Hours

(Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude)
This paper will include questions to test the candidates' attitude and approach to issues relating to integrity, probity in public life and his problem solving approach to various issues and conflicts faced by him in dealing with society. Questions may utilize the case study approach to determine these aspects.

The following broad areas will be covered.

- Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships.
- Human Values - lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
- Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behavior; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.
- Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service , integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.
- Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.
- Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.
- Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance;
- Ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.
- Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information
- Sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen's
- Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.
- Case Studies on above issues.

Paper – VI& VII: Optional Subject – 250 Marks each   Duration: 3 Hours/each paper

Candidates may choose any ONE optional subject from amongst the list of subjects given below.

Interview/Personality Test – 275 Marks:

The candidate will be interviewed by a Board who will have before them a record of his career. He will be asked questions on matters of general interest. The object of the interview is to assess the personal suitability of the candidate for a career in public service by a Board of competent and unbiased observers. Candidate can give preference of the language in which they may like to be interviewed. UPSC will make arrangement for the translators.

The strength of a building lies in its foundation.

The main purpose of the foundation is to hold the structure above it and keep it upright. With high-rise buildings touching the sky, it has become all the more important to have powerful foundations.

Just like that, in Education field also, foundation creates the solid base for any subject on which additional add Ons of current affaits details will help you to strategically clear this India's prestigious examination and achieving your high shining dream of becoming an Officer. Foundations also refers to a tradition of academic inquiry that seeks to expose and make explicit the relationship between educational methods and values.

Importance of foundation: - Strength and stability lie in the foundation. - Most surface issues are really foundation issues if we are courageous enough to find the source.

As shining star can be seen by naked eyes in the open sky. We in our institute also making shining star students by taking regular tests. Those students getting consistently preety nice score in regular test, is considered as star badge student, who will be then subjected to enjoy more benefits from our institute.